Seminar at SMU Delhi

April 8, 2019 (Monday) , 3:30 PM at Webinar
Speaker: Anirvan Chakraborty, IISER Kolkata
Title: What is the dimension of a stochastic process?
Abstract of Talk
How can we determine whether a mean-square continuous stochastic process is finite-dimensional, and if so, what its precise dimension is? And how can we do so at a given level of confidence? This question is central to a great deal of methods for functional data, which require low-dimensional representations whether by functional PCA or other methods. The difficulty is that the determination is to be made on the basis of iid replications of the process observed discretely and with measurement error contamination. This adds a ridge to the empirical covariance, obfuscating the underlying dimension. We build a matrix-completion inspired test statistic that circumvents this issue by measuring the best possible least square fit of the empirical covariance's off-diagonal elements, optimized over covariances of given finite rank. For a fixed grid of sufficient size, we determine the statistic's asymptotic null distribution as the number of replications grows. We then use it to construct a bootstrap implementation of a step-wise testing procedure controlling the family-wise error rate corresponding to the collection of hypothesis formalizing the question at hand. Under minimal regularity assumptions we show that the procedure is consistent and that its bootstrap implementation is valid. The procedure involves no tuning parameters or pre-smoothing, is indifferent to the homoskedasticity or lack of it in the measurement errors, and does not assume a low-noise regime. An extensive study of the procedure's finite-sample accuracy demonstrates remarkable performance in both real and simulated data. This work is joint with Victor M. Panaretos (EPFL, Switzerland)